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Reviews
Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: II. Scientific error and misrepresentation.  J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Apr;10(2):345-8.

Kaplan BJ, Andrus GM, Parish WW.

Departments of Paediatrics, and Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, and Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. kaplan@ucalgary.ca

The preceding paper reviewed the anticancer properties and safety of bis (2-carboxyethylgermanium) sesquioxide (CEGS). An examination of those data leads one to question why this information has not stimulated clinical trials in patients with cancer. The answer is discussed in this paper, which traces the history to an error published in the scientific literature in 1987. The reliance by subsequent authors on secondary sources, citing only the error and not the correction published in 1988, constitutes part of the explanation of why CEGS has been neglected. A second factor is also considered: careless reporting about any germanium-based compound as if the many thousands of germanium compounds were all the same. This combination of a publication error, careless writing, and the reliance on secondary sources appears to be responsible for the neglect of the potential clinical use of this unique germanium compound.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
15165415&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  

Reviews, History, Cancer,
Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: I. Chemistry and anticancer properties. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Apr;10(2):337-44.

Kaplan BJ, Parish WW, Andrus GM, Simpson JS, Field CJ.

Departments of Paediatrics, and Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, and Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. kaplan@ucalgary.ca

This paper reviews the history, chemistry, safety, toxicity, and anticancer effects of the organogermanium compound bis (2-carboxyethylgermanium) sesquioxide (CEGS). A companion review follows, discussing the inaccuracies in the scientific record that have prematurely terminated research on clinical uses of CEGS. CEGS is a unique organogermanium compound first made by Mironov and coworkers in Russia and, shortly thereafter, popularized by Asai and his colleagues in Japan. Low concentrations of germanium occur in nearly all soils, plants and animal life; natural occurrence of the CEGS form is postulated but not yet demonstrated. The literature demonstrating its anticancer effect is particularly strong: CEGS induces interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), enhances natural killer cell activity, and inhibits tumor and metastatic growth--effects often detectable after a single oral dose. In addition, oral consumption of CEGS is readily assimilated and rapidly cleared from the body without evidence of toxicity. Given these findings, the absence of human clinical trials of CEGS is unexpected. Possible explanations of why the convincing findings from animal research have not been used to support clinical trials are discussed. Clinical trials on CEGS are recommended.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
15165414&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

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