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Pain Management
Inhibitory effects of Ge-132 (carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide) derivatives on enkephalin-degrading enzymes. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 1986 Oct;8(5):379-86.

Komuro T, Kakimoto N, Katayama T, Hazato T.

Twenty-eight species of carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) derivatives were examined for their inhibitory effects on enkephalin-degrading enzymes that were purified from monkey brain, the longitudinal muscle layer of bovine small intestine, and human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A series of the sulfurized Ge-132 derivatives showed strong inhibition of these purified enzymes. The most effective ones were Ge-014 and Ge-107, which showed IC50 values of 60 and 100 micrograms/ml, respectively, for dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase from the longitudinal muscle layer. They also exhibited inhibitory activity against aminopeptidase from human CSF, the IC50 values being 450 and 440 micrograms/ml, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed inhibition of dipeptidylaminopeptidase from monkey brain and the longitudinal muscle layer of bovine small intestine. These compounds are expected to have analgesic effects due to their inhibition of the degradation of endogenous opioid peptides.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
3094557&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

Pain Management
Analgesic effect of novel organogermanium compound, GE-132. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1983 Nov;6(11):814-20.

Hachisu M, Takahashi H, Koeda T, Sekizawa Y.

A novel organogermanium compound, Ge-132, carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, showed enhancement of 0.5 mg/kg morphine analgesia in both administration routes of oral administration (p.o.) and intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) in the Tail-Flick test, and the effect was completely abolished by 0.5 mg/kg Naloxone, stereospecific opiate antagonist. Ge-132 alone, 250 mg/kg i.p., did not show any antinociceptive action by assessing the Tail-Flick test and the Hot-Plate test. By the intracerebral injection of Ge-132, 100-1000 micrograms, prolongation of Tail-Flick latency was observed and the action was abolished by 50 micrograms CaCl2 injection. Although bestatin which is reported to enhance the morphine analgesia inhibits enkephalinase and enkephalin aminopeptidase, Ge-132 did not show any inhibition on both enkephalin degrading enzymes. The possibility for the mode of action of Ge-132 was discussed.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
6366183&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

Pain Management
Effectiveness of Ge-132 to relieve pain and smooth home care administration for the terminal cancer patient Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1996 Dec;23 Suppl 3:291-5.

Dozono H, Ikeda K, Onishi T.

Ikeda Radiation Clinic.

Measures to alleviate pain are the most important issue in care of the cancer patient. In the present study, we investigated whether the use of narcotics could be reduced in the use of Ge-132 (Repargermanium) when used alone or together with a narcotic as a means to facilitate pain management in home care. The patients have died at home over the past 2 years with various types of cancer under our hospital supervision. Five were cases of bone metastasis, 6 of ascites. All cases had been given Ge-132, 750 approximately 2,500 mg/day (mean 1,000 mg) either orally or by IV. For pain control the first choice was MS Contin, and when the need arose the route used was intravenous or by suppository. We investigated the rate of narcotic usage and the dosage of same. Narcotics were used in 7 of the 16 patients (44%) who died at home, and the daily dose was 20 approximately 240 mg (mean 60 mg). By using Ge-132 as a pain killer the rate of narcotics use and the dosage were decreased, resulting in less side effects from the narcotics. Thus, Ge-132 proved effective in relieving the pain of the terminal cancer patient receiving home care, and since it has no side effects it assures smooth home treatment.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
8982318&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_DocSum

Anti-inflammatory, Pain Management
Anti-inflammatory effect of germanium-concentrated yeast against paw oedema is related to the inhibition of arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin E production in RBL 2H3 cells.  Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2005 Oct;25(4):129-34.

Lee JH, Kim KW, Yoon MY, Lee JY, Kim CJ, Sim SS.

Department of Pathophysiology, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, 221 Huksuk-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756, South Korea.

To investigate anti-inflammatory activity of organic germanium, we measured the effect of germanium-concentrated yeast on arachidonic acid release, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production, histamine release, and intracellular H(2)O(2) or hydroperoxide generation in RBL 2H3 cells, and carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. 2 Germanium-concentrated yeast dose-dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced paw oedema, suggesting that germanium-concentrated yeast has anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation. 3 Germanium-concentrated yeast significantly inhibited melittin-induced arachidonic acid release and PGE(2) production in RBL 2H3 cells. 4 Germanium-concentrated yeast did not affect melittin-induced histamine release and silica-induced intracellular H(2)O(2) or hydroperoxide generation in RBL 2H3 cells. 5 These results suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of germanium-concentrated yeast appears partly to be related to the inhibition of arachidonic acid release and PGE(2) production in RBL 2H3 cells. PMID: 16176443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
16176443&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum

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