ORGANIC GERMANIUM / GERMANIUM SESQUIOXIDE — SCIENCE WEBSITE
The Authoritative Germanium Sesquioxide Resource

Table of Contents: 
Analytical •AntimutagenicAntioxidant •Antiviral •Arthritis •Atherosclerosis •Bioavailability •CancerCataracts  •Cervix •DNA Repair •Fibrosis •Free Radical ScavengingHazards •Heart •History •Immune SystemKidneysInflammation •Liver •Osteoporosis •Pain Management Pharmacology •Reviews •Safety •Uterus

Immune Support — Linked Headers

2-Carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, a synthetic organogermanium compound, as an inducer of contrasuppressor T cells. Experientia. 1996 Feb 15;52(2):159-66. Ikemoto K, Kobayashi M, Fukumoto T, Morimatsu M, Pollard RB, Suzuki F.

Effects of 2-carboxythylgerumanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) as an immunological modifier of post-surgical immunosuppression in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 1993 Oct;55(5):795-9. Nakada Y, Kosaka T, Kuwabara M, Tanaka S, Sato K, Koide F.

Immunothermotherapy and related TNS induction in mice. J Vet Med Sci. 1993 Jun;55(3):471-3. Kuwabara M.

Decreased plasma superoxide scavenging activity in immunological disorders--carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) as a promoter of prednisolone. Biotherapy. 1992;4(1):1-8. Pronai L, Arimori S.

Preventive effect of a synthetic immunomodulator, 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, on the generation of suppressor macrophages in mice immunized with allogeneic lymphocytes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1992;14(4):841-64. Kobayashi H, Aso H, Ishida N, Maeda H, Schmitt DA, Pollard RB, Suzuki F.

Antitumor mechanisms of carboxyethyl-germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1987 Jan;14(1):127-34. Suzuki F.

Importance of T-cells and macrophages in the antitumor activity of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132). Anticancer Res. 1985 Sep-Oct;5(5):479-83. Suzuki F, Brutkiewicz RR, Pollard RB.

Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in association with modification of immune response by novel organic germanium compounds. J Biol Response Mod. 1985 Apr;4(2):159-68. Sato I, Yuan BD, Nishimura T, Tanaka N.

Immunological control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in an immunodeficient murine model of thermal injuries. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005 Dec;142(3):419-25. Katakura T, Yoshida T, Kobayashi M, Herndon DN, Suzuki F.

Effectiveness of propagermanium treatment in multiple myeloma patients. Eur J Haematol. 2004 Dec;73(6):397-401. Tsutsumi Y, Tanaka J, Kanamori H, Musashi M, Minami H, Fukushima A, Yamato H, Ehira N, Kawamura T, Obara S, Ogura N, Asaka M, Imamura M, Masauzi N.

Propagermanium: a nonspecific immune modulator for chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38(6):525-32. Hirayama C, Suzuki H, Ito M, Okumura M, Oda T.

2-Carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, a synthetic organogermanium compound, as an inducer of contrasuppressor T cells. Experientia. 1996 Feb 15;52(2):159-66. Ikemoto K, Kobayashi M, Fukumoto T, Morimatsu M, Pollard RB, Suzuki F.

Studies on the antiviral activity of propagermanium with immunostimulating action. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994 Mar;44(3):357-61. Ishiwata Y, Suzuki E, Yokochi S, Otsuka T, Tasaka F, Usuda H, Mitani T.

Effects of proxigermanium on interferon production and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity in the lung of influenza virus-infected mice and in virus-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990 Aug;40(8):896-9. Ishiwata Y, Yokochi S, Suzuki E, Michishita H, Tashita A, Asano K, Mitani T, Kurono M.

Biological activities and antitumor mechanism of an immunopotentiating organogermanium compound, Ge-132 (review). In Vivo. 1987 Jul-Aug;1(4):189-203. Brutkiewicz RR, Suzuki F.

Induction of interferon production by natural killer cells by organogermanium compound, Ge132.  J Interferon Res. 1987 Feb;7(1):69-76. Munakata T, Arai S, Kuwano K, Furukawa M, Tomita Y.

Multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer using BCG, OK-432, and GE-132 as biologic response modifiers. Head Neck. 1994 Jan-Feb;16(1):30-8. Fukazawa H, Ohashi Y, Sekiyama S, Hoshi H, Abe M, Takahashi M, Sato T.

Antitumor activity of Ge-132, a new organogermanium compound, in mice is expressed through the functions of macrophages and T lymphocytes.  Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1985 Jul;12(7):1445-52. Suzuki F.

Antitumor effect of the organogermanium compound Ge-132 on the Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice.  Tohoku J Exp Med. 1985 May;146(1):97-104. Kumano N, Ishikawa T, Koinumaru S, Kikumoto T, Suzuki S, Nakai Y, Konno K.

Induction of interferon and activation of NK cells and macrophages in mice by oral administration of Ge-132, an organic germanium compound. Microbiol Immunol. 1985;29(1):65-74. Aso H, Suzuki F, Yamaguchi T, Hayashi Y, Ebina T, Ishida N.

Effects of interferon and its inducers on neutrophil chemiluminescence.  Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1984 Jul;11(7):1439-43. [Article in Japanese] Takahashi I, Fukumoto M, Inagaki N, Ueda I, Nishimura M, Aoyama S, Oda Y, Ohmoto E, Takaoka K, Lai M, et al.

Augmentation of NK activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients by intermittent GE-132 administration. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1984 Jun;11(6):1303-6. [Article in Japanese] Tanaka N, Ohida J, Ono M, Yoshiwara H, Beika T, Terasawa A, Yamada J, Morioka S, Mannami T, Orita K.

Prevention of suppressed interferon gamma production in thermally injured mice by administration of a novel organogermanium compound, Ge-132.  J Interferon Res. 1984 Spring;4(2):223-33. Suzuki F, Pollard RB.

Endogenous gamma interferon production may protect against hepatic cirrhosis and administration of exogenous gamma interferon may protect individuals prone to cirrhosis.  Med Hypotheses. 1987 Apr;22(4):415-9. Sharpe RJ.

A new inducer of immune interferon in human leukocytes--the organogermanium compound MOP-11.  Vopr Virusol. 1991 Jan-Feb;36(1):63-4. Khusainov RM, Ignatenko MA, Gritsenko LI, Frolova IS, Babaiants AA, Kuznetsov VP, Amchenkova AM, Narovlianskii AN, Pokidysheva LN, Barteneva NS, et al.

Restoration of impaired immunoresponse by germanium in mice.  Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1980;63(3):338-9 Mizushima Y, Shoji Y, Kaneko K.

Therapeutic effects of organic germanium.  Med Hypotheses. 1988 Jul;26(3):207-15. Goodman S.

Prevention of pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and activation of murine macrophages by a novel organic germanium compound, PCAGeS.  J Biol Response Mod. 1988 Feb;7(1):1-5. Sato I, Nishimura T, Kakimoto N, Suzuki H, Tanaka N.

Antiviral Activity of 3-oxygermylpropionic Acid Polymer (SK-818).  Pharmacometrics 1990;39(4):385-388. Haruhisa Fujita and Yoshiko Seto. Division of Chemotherapy, Pharmaceutical Institute, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinanomachi, Shiinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan 

Immune System
2-Carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, a synthetic organogermanium compound, as an inducer of contrasuppressor T cells. Experientia. 1996 Feb 15;52(2):159-66.

Ikemoto K, Kobayashi M, Fukumoto T, Morimatsu M, Pollard RB, Suzuki F.

Department of Neurology, Yamaguchi University of Medical School, Japan.

2-Carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132), a synthesized organogermanium compound with immunomodulating activities, was shown to be an inducer of anti-suppressor T cells in normal mice. The suppressor cell activity of T6S cells, a clone of burn-induced CD8+ IL-4-producing suppressor T cells, was clearly inhibited when a mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell reaction of the clone was conducted with splenic mononuclear cells from mice treated orally with a 100 mg/kg dose of Ge-132. The activity of anit-suppressor cells was demonstrated in spleens of mice 2 days after treatment with Ge-132 and reached its peak on day 3. The anti-suppressor cells induced by the compound were of a contrasuppressor T cell-linage, because they were characterized as CD4+ CD28+ TCRalpha/beta+ Vicia villosa lectin-adherent T cells. These cells produced IFN-gamma but did not produce IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 or IL-10 in their culture fluids. CD4+ anti-suppressor T cells induced by Ge-132 may be different from other subsets of CD4+ T cells because Th1 and Th2 cells generated in our laboratory did not adhere to Vicia villosa lectin-coated petri dishes, and each produced specific cytokines. Th1 cells produced IFN-gamma and IL-2 while Th2 cells produce IL-4 and IL-10 in vitro. These results suggest that Ge-132 may be useful as an inducer of contrasuppressor T cells in immunocompromised individuals bearing suppressor T cells. To eliminate suppressor T cells from immunocompromised hosts may result in improved resistance from various opportunistic infections.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
8608818&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
Effects of 2-carboxythylgerumanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) as an immunological modifier of post-surgical immunosuppression in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 1993 Oct;55(5):795-9.

Nakada Y, Kosaka T, Kuwabara M, Tanaka S, Sato K, Koide F.

Department of Veterinary Radiology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan.

The effect of 2-carboxythylgerumanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) as an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) inducer on post-surgical immunosuppression was evaluated from the immunological response augmented in canine neutrophils, macrophages and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) using the chemiluminescence technique. Experimental gastrotomy was performed on dogs in two groups; one group was subjected to sham-surgery without any medication, and the other was treated by Ge-132 administration at 24 hr before operation. Although the phagocytic activities of neutrophils, macrophages and PBL in the sham-operated group were depressed transiently after surgery, those in the Ge-132-administered group (Ge-132 group) were enhanced for a long time after surgery. It appeared that the generated free radical, which blocked the phagocytosis of macrophages and PBL, was activated by IFN-gamma. These results suggest that Ge-132 pre-treatment may be efficacious and useful in preventing the multifaceted clinical symptoms induced by post-operative immunosuppression in dogs.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
8286533&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
Immunothermotherapy and related TNS induction in mice. J Vet Med Sci. 1993 Jun;55(3):471-3.

Kuwabara M.

Department of Veterinary Radiology, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, Kanagawa, Japan.

Induction of tumor necrosis factor in sera (TNS) as a multidisciplinary cancer therapy by the administration of a combination of 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Meth-A sarcoma-bearing mice was attempted. In addition to the above TNS induction therapy (TNS therapy) per se, the potential on the above parameters by employing a multidisciplinary cancer therapy (immunothermotherapy), in which TNS therapy was coupled with regional hyperthermia treatment, was investigated. This immunothermotherapy enhanced the antitumor effects produced by the above TNS therapy.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
8357924&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
Decreased plasma superoxide scavenging activity in immunological disorders--carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) as a promoter of prednisolone. Biotherapy. 1992;4(1):1-8.

Pronai L, Arimori S.

Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa-ken, Japan.

We investigated so-called superoxide scavenging activity (SSA) of plasma in patients with several immunological disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), polymyo-dermatomyositis (PM), progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), myasthenia gravis (MG) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AT), using the electron paramagnetic resonance/spin trapping technique. Since carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, Ge-132, has been reported to modulate both the immune response and leukocyte functions, we have studied in vivo effect of Ge-132 on plasma SSA and other laboratory parameters in these disorders. The plasma SSA was significantly lower in RA, SLE, PM and PSS, but not in MG and AT, as compared with that in healthy controls. An inverse correlation was observed between plasma SSA and parameters such as erythrocytes sedimentation rates, absolute number of leukocytes, C-reactive protein and serum globulin levels. Furthermore, plasma SSA was significantly decreased in rheumatoid factor-positive patients as compared to negative patients. No correlation was observed between plasma SSA and factors such as ages, sex of patients or the other laboratory parameters, such as serum albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, hemoglobin and serum iron levels. Patients treated with prednisolone, especially ones with RA, showed an increase of plasma SSA. It appears that Ge-132 promotes prednisolone effects. Our results indicate that a decrease in plasma SSA is not disease specific, but inversely correlates with the severity and activity of inflammation. The methodology to measure plasma SSA presented in this work provides a helpful tool for determining the actual activity of the diseases as well as in vivo studies of antiinflammatory agents.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
1311942&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
Preventive effect of a synthetic immunomodulator, 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, on the generation of suppressor macrophages in mice immunized with allogeneic lymphocytes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1992;14(4):841-64.

Kobayashi H, Aso H, Ishida N, Maeda H, Schmitt DA, Pollard RB, Suzuki F.

Asai Germanium Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

The effect of 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) on the generation of splenic suppressor macrophages (S-M phi) in C3H/He mice (H-2k) immunized with allogeneic spleen cells from C57Bl/6 mice (H-2b) was investigated. We have previously demonstrated that S-M phi expressing I-J antigen, which appeared during alloimmunization, inhibited cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in the MLR and the elimination of these S-M phi before subjection to the MLR resulted in more effective generation of CTL. The CTL activity, which was determined in vivo by the Winn's test, was markedly enhanced when immunized mice received a 100 mg/kg dose of Ge-132. The compound was found to be the most efficacious when injected simultaneously with the immunization. The activity of allospecific CTL co-cultured with M phi fractions obtained from immunized mice in a 4-h 51Cr-release assay was shown to be 31% lysis of the target cells as compared with 90% lysis of the target cells in effector cells co-cultured with normal M phi fractions. In contrast, effector cells co-cultured with M phi fractions from Ge-132-treated immunized mice lysed 95% of the target cells. Analysis of the level of I-J antigen expression on macrophages (M phi) obtained from mice 7 days after immunization revealed a > 2.5-fold increase, whereas I-A antigen expression remained constant when compared with splenic M phi from naive mice. In contrast, the opposite effect on I-J and I-A antigen expression was observed in splenic M phi from alloimmunized mice treated with Ge-132. These results suggest that Ge-132 could regulate CTL generation in alloimmunized mice by preventing the generation of I-J+ S-M phi.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
1294625&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Cancer, Immune System
Antitumor mechanisms of carboxyethyl-germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1987 Jan;14(1):127-34.

Suzuki F.

The administration of IFN-containing sera (Ge-sera) obtained from Ge-132-treated mice (Ge-mice) or the passive transfer of macrophages (M phi) to mice bearing ascites tumors resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth. The cooperative role of Ge-sera and Ge-M phi in the display of Ge-132-antitumor activity was studied. When mice were pretreated with antimouse IFN gamma antiserum, no IFN-inducing or antitumor activities of the compound were detected. Cytotoxic activities were detected in peritoneal M phi of mice treated with Ge-sera, and passive transfer of these M phi to tumor-bearing mice resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth. When tumor-bearing mice were pretreated with substances toxic to M phi, no antitumor activity of Ge-sera was observed. However, Ge-132 antitumor activity was observed in mice depleted of T-cells, even though the antitumor effects of the compound itself were not demonstrable in T-cell-depleted mice. Therefore, a part of the antitumor activity of Ge-132 appears to be expressed as follows: Ge-132 stimulates T-cells to produce circulating lymphokine(s) which are inactivated by anti-IFN gamma treatment; activated M phi are generated from resting M phi by these lymphokine(s); the transplanted tumors are inhibited by these M phi.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
3800401&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Cancer, Immune System
Importance of T-cells and macrophages in the antitumor activity of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132). Anticancer Res. 1985 Sep-Oct;5(5):479-83.

Suzuki F, Brutkiewicz RR, Pollard RB.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective mechanisms of Ge-132, an organogermanium compound with immunomodulatory activity, on experimental murine ascites tumors. The antitumor effects of Ge-132 were observed when mice inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma (allogeneic) or RL male 1 leukemia (syngeneic) cells were treated orally. However, Ge-132 had no activity on EL-4 lymphoma (syngeneic) or Meth A fibrosarcoma (syngeneic). The antitumor activity of Ge-132 was not observed when tumor-bearing mice were treated with trypan blue, carrageenan, or monoclonal anti-Thy 1.2 antibody. However, when natural killer (NK) cells were eliminated from mice bearing RL male 1 or Ehrlich ascites tumors by treatment with anti-asialo GM1 antiserum, the antitumor activity of the compound was unchanged. This suggests that Ge-132 was effective against certain ascites tumors regardless of whether the tumor was syngeneic or allogeneic. Furthermore, its effect might be expressed through host defense mechanisms, including macrophages and/or T-cells.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
3877491&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Cancer, Immune System
Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in association with modification of immune response by novel organic germanium compounds. J Biol Response Mod. 1985 Apr;4(2):159-68.

Sato I, Yuan BD, Nishimura T, Tanaka N.

The effects of two novel organic germanium compounds, 1-phenyl-2-carbamoylethylgermanium sesquisulfide (PCAGeS) and 1-phenyl-2-carbamoylethylgermanium sequioxide (PCAGeO), on transplantable murine tumors and immune responses were studied. Both drugs showed low toxicity for mice. In culture, neither substance displayed significant cytotoxicity against murine tumor cells L1210 leukemia, L5178Y lymphoma, or IMC carcinoma. Growth of subcutaneously transplanted IMC carcinoma or Meth-A fibrosarcoma was markedly reduced by oral administration of PCAGeS. PCAGeO exhibited a similar but smaller effect on the tumor growth. Pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma was inhibited by oral or intraperitoneal treatment with PCAGeS. The activity of cyclophosphamide or Adriamycin against L1210 leukemia was significantly potentiated by oral administration of PCAGeS. PCAGeS enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) of mice or restored the response suppressed by ascitic IMC carcinoma, but did not significantly affect the formation of antibody to SRBC. PCAGeO similarly stimulated the DTH reaction. Phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages was enhanced by oral treatment of mice with PCAGeS. The results suggest that PCAGeS and PCAGeO display tumor-inhibitory activity by modification of the immune mechanism.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
3998767&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Antiviral, Immune System
Immunological control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in an immunodeficient murine model of thermal injuries.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2005 Dec;142(3):419-25.

Katakura T, Yoshida T, Kobayashi M, Herndon DN, Suzuki F.

Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555-0435, USA.

Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a major cause of sepsis in patients who are immunosuppressed by their burns. In this study, an immunological regulation of MRSA infection was attempted in a mouse model of thermal injury. SCIDbg mice were resistant to MRSA infection, while SCIDbgMN mice (SCIDbg mice depleted of neutrophils and macrophages (Mphi)) were susceptible to the same infection. Also, thermally injured SCIDbg mice were shown to be susceptible to MRSA infection. On the other hand, the resistance of SCIDbgMN mice to the infection was completely recovered after an inoculation with Mphi from normal mice. However, anti-MRSA resistance was not shown in SCIDbgMN mice inoculated with Mphi from thermally injured mice. Mphi from MRSA-infected thermally injured mice were identified as alternatively activated Mphi, and Mphi from MRSA-infected unburned mice were characterized as classically activated Mphi. Mphi from thermally injured SCIDbg mice previously treated with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) protected SCIDbgMN mice against MRSA infection. Ge-132 has been described as an inhibitor of alternatively activated Mphi generation. These results suggest that MRSA infection in thermally injured patients is controlled immunologically through the induction of anti-MRSA effector cells and elimination of burn-associated alternatively activated Mphi, which are cells that inhibit the generation of classically activated Mphi.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
16297152&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_docsum

  Back Up

Immune System, Cancer
Effectiveness of propagermanium treatment in multiple myeloma patients. Eur J Haematol. 2004 Dec;73(6):397-401.

Tsutsumi Y, Tanaka J, Kanamori H, Musashi M, Minami H, Fukushima A, Yamato H, Ehira N, Kawamura T, Obara S, Ogura N, Asaka M, Imamura M, Masauzi N.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hakodate Municipal Hospital, Hakodate, Japan. rtsutsu@nyc.odn.ne.jp

Interferon (IFN) is one of several drugs effective in treating multiple myeloma (MM), and propagermanium is an IFN inducer. We report on 10 MM patients who were treated with propagermanium at doses from 10 to 40 mg. Two patients achieved complete remission (CR), two patients achieved partial remission (PR), and the condition of four patients was stable (stable disease, SD). After discontinuation of propagermanium, the status of MM progressed in two patients who were in SD and in two patients who had achieved PR. The administration of propagermanium was restarted in one patient resulting in a decrease in her paraprotein.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
15522060&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_docsum

  Back Up

Immune System, Liver
Propagermanium: a nonspecific immune modulator for chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38(6):525-32.

Hirayama C, Suzuki H, Ito M, Okumura M, Oda T.

Second Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

Although antiviral agents have been adopted for the management of chronic hepatitis B, they have only limited efficacy because of the underlying impaired immune status. Propagermanium, a hydrophilic polymer of 3-oxygermyl propionate, has been reported to have potent immune modulatory activity associated with antiinflammatory and antineoplastic properties. For example, propagermanium augments lymphocyte functions in CD4 and CD8 cells, and in natural killer (NK) cells, and induces the production of several cytokines. A controlled pilot study of 16-week treatment with propagermanium for chronic hepatitis B (of moderate and mild grades on hepatic histology) revealed a sustained clearance of hepatitis B e (HBe) antigen and a favorable biochemical response at week 16 of treatment and at week 48 post-treatment. An open study also supported the clearance of hepatitis B virus from the blood and the possible improvement of histologic grading in the liver. There were few adverse events. A postmarketing survey, however, revealed the occurrence of moderate to severe liver damage after the treatment in about 4% of patients. Despite the exact nature of the liver damage being unclear, a putative cause is the swift removal of virus-infected hepatocytes by an immune reaction through the treatment. A subtle balance between host and viral conditions is the factor which most determines hepatitis B virus persistence. The rationale for a nonspecific immune modulator for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B will be the restoration of cellular immune responsiveness to viral infection. Although the cellular immunity for hepatitis B virus prior to the treatment should be studied, adequate observation of hepatic functions and viral markers in the recipients is clinically useful to predict liver failure during the treatment. In summary, the propagermanium regimen offers a potent and safe approach that is cost-effective for appropriate chronic hepatitis B patients with reserve hepatic capacity, and will provide new perspectives for immune therapy in chronic hepatitis B.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
12825127&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_docsum

  Back Up

Immune System
2-Carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, a synthetic organogermanium compound, as an inducer of contrasuppressor T cells. Experientia. 1996 Feb 15;52(2):159-66.

Ikemoto K, Kobayashi M, Fukumoto T, Morimatsu M, Pollard RB, Suzuki F.

Department of Neurology, Yamaguchi University of Medical School, Japan.

2-Carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132), a synthesized organogermanium compound with immunomodulating activities, was shown to be an inducer of anti-suppressor T cells in normal mice. The suppressor cell activity of T6S cells, a clone of burn-induced CD8+ IL-4-producing suppressor T cells, was clearly inhibited when a mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell reaction of the clone was conducted with splenic mononuclear cells from mice treated orally with a 100 mg/kg dose of Ge-132. The activity of anit-suppressor cells was demonstrated in spleens of mice 2 days after treatment with Ge-132 and reached its peak on day 3. The anti-suppressor cells induced by the compound were of a contrasuppressor T cell-linage, because they were characterized as CD4+ CD28+ TCRalpha/beta+ Vicia villosa lectin-adherent T cells. These cells produced IFN-gamma but did not produce IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 or IL-10 in their culture fluids. CD4+ anti-suppressor T cells induced by Ge-132 may be different from other subsets of CD4+ T cells because Th1 and Th2 cells generated in our laboratory did not adhere to Vicia villosa lectin-coated petri dishes, and each produced specific cytokines. Th1 cells produced IFN-gamma and IL-2 while Th2 cells produce IL-4 and IL-10 in vitro. These results suggest that Ge-132 may be useful as an inducer of contrasuppressor T cells in immunocompromised individuals bearing suppressor T cells. To eliminate suppressor T cells from immunocompromised hosts may result in improved resistance from various opportunistic infections.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
8608818&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System, Antiviral
Studies on the antiviral activity of propagermanium with immunostimulating action. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994 Mar;44(3):357-61.

Ishiwata Y, Suzuki E, Yokochi S, Otsuka T, Tasaka F, Usuda H, Mitani T.

Mie Laboratory, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Japan.

The effects of propagermanium (3-oxygermylpropionic acid polymer) on various virus-infected mice were investigated. Propagermanium did not inhibit the multiplication of various DNA or RNA viruses in vitro. Oral administration of propagermanium in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) significantly prolonged the mean survival days. The efficacy of propagermanium at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg daily was 13.4 +/- 2.3 and 14.2 +/- 2.3 mean survival days in comparison with 7.7 +/- 0.5 mean survival days at control group. In vaccinia virus-infected mice, oral doses of propagermanium ranging from 0.2 to 10 mg/kg suppressed the number of pocks on the tail which induced by the virus. Propagermanium (0.5-10 mg/kg) orally given to HSV-1-infected mice induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against HSV-1 antigen. In addition, propagermanium (1-10 mg/kg) enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induction in mice treated with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG). In mice spleen cells cultured with Concanavalin A, 0.1 to 10 micrograms/ml of propagermanium stimulated interleukin 2 (IL-2) production. It seems likely that the antiviral activity of propagermanium was exerted via enhancement of host immune resistance against viral infection.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
8192703&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System, Antiviral
Effects of proxigermanium on interferon production and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity in the lung of influenza virus-infected mice and in virus-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990 Aug;40(8):896-9.

Ishiwata Y, Yokochi S, Suzuki E, Michishita H, Tashita A, Asano K, Mitani T, Kurono M.

Mie Laboratory, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Japan.

Proxigermanium (SK-818) is a synthesized organic germanium compound having various biological activities. The effects of proxigermanium on interferon (IFN) production in mice infected with influenza virus and virus-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) were investigated. Proxigermanium alone did not induce IFN production in normal mice or in hPBMC without viral infection. On the other hand, proxigermanium enhanced alpha/beta IFN production in viral-infected mice and hPBMC. Since proxigermanium is known to have antiviral activity in vivo but not in vitro, it is likely that the IFN production augumenting activity of proxigermanium is involved in its antiviral activities.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
1700719&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System, Cancer, Physiology
Biological activities and antitumor mechanism of an immunopotentiating organogermanium compound, Ge-132 (review). In Vivo. 1987 Jul-Aug;1(4):189-203.

Brutkiewicz RR, Suzuki F.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77550.

The biological activities and antitumor mechanism of an immunopotentiator, Ge-132, is reviewed herein. Ge-132 exhibited antitumor activity against certain syngeneic and allogeneic experimental tumors. It was shown that T-cells and macrophages were involved when tumor-bearing mice were protected by the compound. This protective effect could be transferred to tumor-bearing mice, not treated with the compound, by a macrophage fraction and serum specimens obtained from Ge-132-treated mice. Interferon gamma (IFN gamma) was detected in the circulation of Ge-132-treated mice and when sera obtained from Ge-132-treated mice were treated with anti-IFN gamma antiserum in vitro, the antitumor activity was abolished. On the other hand, in mice treated with anti-IFN gamma antiserum, Ge-132 did not induce serum IFN and failed to protect against death due to ascites tumor progression. The in vivo administration of monoclonal anti-Thy 1.2 antibody prevented the expression of the antitumor activity of Ge-132. However, serum specimens obtained from Ge-132-treated mice effectively inhibited the tumor growth of T-cell-depleted mice bearing ascites tumors. Since it has been reported that T-lymphocytes produce IFN gamma, this suggested that Ge-132 may first stimulate T-cells to produce IFN gamma in the expression of the observed antitumor efficacy. In addition, sera obtained from Ge-132-treated mice did not show any antitumor activity in mice depleted of macrophage functions. Additionally, passive transfer of macrophages from mice treated with these serum specimens to tumor-bearing mice also resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth. Pretreatment of these serum specimens with anti-IFN gamma antiserum effectively prevented the generation of cytotoxic macrophages. Also, tumor-bearing mice treated exogenously with this antiserum did not differ significantly in survival as compared to controls, despite the administration of Ge-132. Furthermore, the antitumor activity of Ge-132 was detected in NK cell-depleted mice. Therefore, the antitumor mechanism of Ge-132 in the murine ascites tumor system may be expressed as follows: (a) Ge-132 stimulates T-cells to induce IFN gamma when mice are treated orally with the compound, (b) IFN gamma activates macrophages to become cytotoxic, and (c) the cytotoxic macrophages eliminate tumor cells.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
2979786&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
Induction of interferon production by natural killer cells by organogermanium compound, Ge132.  J Interferon Res. 1987 Feb;7(1):69-76.

Munakata T, Arai S, Kuwano K, Furukawa M, Tomita Y.

Interferon (IFN)-inducing activity of the organogermanium compound Ge132 in human peripheral mononuclear cells was investigated. By using Percoll discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, peripheral blood nonphagocytic and nonadherent mononuclear cells were divided into the low-and high-density fractions. Natural killer (NK)-enriched low-density fractions, but not the T-cell-enriched high-density fractions, showed IFN production by the stimulation of Ge132. The maximal titer of IFN by NK-enriched fractions (F1 + F2) was observed after a 74-h cultivation in the presence of 200 micrograms/ml Ge132. IFN production by the NK-enriched fractions was abrogated by treatment of the cells with monoclonal antibody against human NK cells in the presence of complement. The treatment with antiserum-neutralizing human IFN-gamma resulted in a marked reduction, indicating that a major part of IFN was IFN-gamma. These results suggested that Ge132 might possess affinity to NK cells, inducing IFN production by NK cells.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
3108417&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System, Cancer
Multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer using BCG, OK-432, and GE-132 as biologic response modifiers.  Head Neck. 1994 Jan-Feb;16(1):30-8.

Fukazawa H, Ohashi Y, Sekiyama S, Hoshi H, Abe M, Takahashi M, Sato T.

2nd Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Niigata University, School of Dentistry, Japan.

Since 1979, we have performed multidisciplinary treatment using intensive immunotherapy with biologic response modifiers (BRM) in combination with surgical treatment of oral cancer. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were also included as part of the therapy. A historic control study was performed. Adjuvant therapy was administered by standardized methods, and the distribution of patients at various stages was similar between groups. The immunotherapy group showed a shorter treatment period, lower rates of recurrence, metastases, and side effects, greater histologic effects at the end of the first treatment, and a higher survival rate than the nonimmunotherapy group. Immunologically, immunotherapy tended to promote positive immune reactions and inhibit negative immune reactions. PMID: 7510275 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
7510275&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Cancer, Immune System
Antitumor activity of Ge-132, a new organogermanium compound, in mice is expressed through the functions of macrophages and T lymphocytes.  Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1985 Jul;12(7):1445-52.

Suzuki F.

The antitumor activity of Ge-132 against a variety of allogeneic and syngeneic murine ascites tumors was first evaluated. The antitumor effects of Ge-132 were observed when mice inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma (allogeneic) or RL male 1 leukemia (syngeneic) cells were treated orally. However, Ge-132 had no activity on a T-cell lymphoma (EL 4, syngeneic) or a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (Meth-A, syngeneic). The antitumor effect of Ge-132 in mice was related to the dose administered as well as the administration schedule. The antitumor activity of Ge-132 was next studied in mice pretreated with some blockers against immunocompetent cells. The antitumor efficacy of Ge-132 was not observed when tumor-bearing mice were treated with trypan blue and carrageenan or monoclonal anti-Thy 1.2 antibody. However, when natural killer cells were eliminated from mice bearing RL male 1 or Ehrlich ascites tumors by treatment with anti-asialo GM 1 antiserum, the antitumor efficacy of the compound was unchanged. These results suggest that Ge-132 is effective against certain ascites tumors regardless of whether the tumor is syngeneic or allogeneic. Further, its effect might be expressed through host defense mechanisms, including macrophages and/or T lymphocytes. PMID: 3874600 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
3874600&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Cancer, Immune System
Antitumor effect of the organogermanium compound Ge-132 on the Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice.  Tohoku J Exp Med. 1985 May;146(1):97-104.

Kumano N, Ishikawa T, Koinumaru S, Kikumoto T, Suzuki S, Nakai Y, Konno K.

Effects of the organogermanium compound Ge-132 (i.p.) were examined on the 3LL local tumor (1 X 10(5)/mouse, s.c.) and its pulmonary metastases in B6 mice. A characteristic feature of its action was the preferential antimetastatic effect under strictly defined conditions. Either inhibition or facilitation was observed depending on the treatment schedules; 7 daily doses of 100 mg/kg yielded the inhibition ratio 49% when started from day 1, whereas the treatment from day 8 resulted in the ratio -99%. The maximum inhibition was obtained at 100 mg/kg. The postsurgical-adjuvant treatment with Ge-132 was of no beneficial effect. The local tumor growth was affected only marginally and temporarily. When inoculum size was minimized (1 X 10(4)), a single dose of 300 mg/kg on day 1, but not on day 8, was effective in prolonging the latency before tumor take. The antitumor action of Ge-132 was discussed with reference to its interferon (IFN)-inducing activity. PMID: 4024087 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
4024087&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
Induction of interferon and activation of NK cells and macrophages in mice by oral administration of Ge-132, an organic germanium compound. Microbiol Immunol. 1985;29(1):65-74.

Aso H, Suzuki F, Yamaguchi T, Hayashi Y, Ebina T, Ishida N.
After oral administration of an organic germanium compound, Ge-132 (300 mg/kg), a significant level of interferon (IFN) activity was detected in the sera of mice at 20 hr and it reached a maximum of 320 U/ml at 24 hr. This IFN activity was lost after heat- or acid-treatment, suggesting that the induced IFN is of gamma-nature. The molecular weight of this IFN was estimated to be 50,000 daltons by gel filtration. The NK activity of spleen cells was increased 24 hr after the oral administration of Ge-132, and cytotoxic macrophages were induced in the peritoneal cavity by 48 hr. In the mice receiving an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of trypan blue or carrageenan 2 days before oral administration of Ge-132, neither induction of IFN nor augmentation of NK activity occurred, and X-ray irradiation of mice also rendered the mice incapable of producing IFN, all indicating that both macrophages and lymphocytes are required for this IFN induction. Both NK and cytotoxic macrophages appeared 18 hr after ip administration of the induced IFN with a titer as low as 20 U/ml. These facts suggest that both the augmentation of NK activity and activation of macrophages in mice after oral administration of Ge-132 are mediated by the induced IFN. PMID: 2581116 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
2581116&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
Effects of interferon and its inducers on neutrophil chemiluminescence.  Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1984 Jul;11(7):1439-43. [Article in Japanese]

Takahashi I, Fukumoto M, Inagaki N, Ueda I, Nishimura M, Aoyama S, Oda Y, Ohmoto E, Takaoka K, Lai M, et al.

In order to evaluate effects of interferon (IFN) and its inducers on neutrophil functions, neutrophil chemiluminescence (ChL) was assayed in 12 patients treated with IFN (human lymphoblastoid interferon, 3.0 X 10(6) units/day i.m. daily) or Ge-132 (2,250 mg/day p.o. daily). The peak levels of neutrophil ChL, assayed one week after the initiation of treatment, were increased in comparison to those before treatment, but one month after treatment they were decreased to pretreatment levels in spite of the daily administration of the agent. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that IFN and Ge-132 enhanced the host defence mechanism including the activation of neutrophils, which appeared at the early phase of the host reaction. PMID: 6588923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
6588923&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Cancer, Immune System
Augmentation of NK activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients by intermittent GE-132 administration.  Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1984 Jun;11(6):1303-6. [Article in Japanese]

Tanaka N, Ohida J, Ono M, Yoshiwara H, Beika T, Terasawa A, Yamada J, Morioka S, Mannami T, Orita K.

The natural killer (NK) activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 18 cancer patients was studied prior to and after multiple administration of organo-germanium compound (Ge-132). In successive oral administration of Ge-132 at a dose of 1000 mg/day for 10 days, NK-activity of patients was augmented at 3 days, but by 10 days, depression of NK activity was observed in all cases. In intermittent oral administration of Ge-132, however, more than half of the patients with augmented NK activity at day 3 maintained the high activity level at day 10. This result suggests the superiority of intermittent administration of Ge-132 for clinical use. PMID: 6732257 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
6732257&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
Prevention of suppressed interferon gamma production in thermally injured mice by administration of a novel organogermanium compound, Ge-132.  J Interferon Res. 1984 Spring;4(2):223-33.

Suzuki F, Pollard RB.

As reported previously, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production was selectively decreased in thermally injured mice (TI-Mice) and spleen cell cultures from the mice following stimulation with various IFN inducers. The decrease in IFN production was associated with splenic suppressor macrophages. The present study demonstrated that TI-Mice treated with Ge-132 (TGe-Mice) produced IFN following stimulation with IFN-gamma inducers. The level of IFN activity detected in the sera of TGe-Mice approximated that of controls. Similar results were obtained when spleen cells prepared from TGe-Mice were stimulated with IFN-gamma inducers in vitro. While transfer of spleen cells from TI-Mice resulted in the suppression of IFN production in normal mice (N-Mice) stimulated with IFN-gamma inducers, the transfer of spleen cells derived from TGe-Mice did not induce suppression of IFN production in N-Mice. Mononuclear cells (MNC) prepared from N-Mice produced IFN following concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation when they were co-cultured with macrophage-enriched populations (PAC) obtained from the spleens of TGe-Mice. In contrast, MNC stimulated with Con A did not produce IFN activity when they were co-cultured with PAC of TI-Mice. These results suggest that the generation of suppressor macrophages in TI-Mice may be altered by the administration of Ge-132. PMID: 6431019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
6431019&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Liver, Immune System
Endogenous gamma interferon production may protect against hepatic cirrhosis and administration of exogenous gamma interferon may protect individuals prone to cirrhosis.  Med Hypotheses. 1987 Apr;22(4):415-9.

Sharpe RJ.

Hepatic cirrhosis is characterized by the replacement of normal liver parenchyma by collagenous fibrous tissue. Although hepatocytes in the adult retain the ability to divide, under certain circumstances hepatocyte death leads to replacement with fibroblasts and collagen. Whether a particular form of hepatocyte injury leads to cirrhosis is dependent upon the stimulus for the injury and is also highly variable between individuals. It has recently been shown that gamma interferon inhibits collagen synthesis in vitro and fibrosis in vivo. I suggest that individuals who are prone to hepatic cirrhosis from a given stimulus are low producers of gamma interferon while high gamma interferon producers are relatively protected from cirrhosis. I also hypothesize that exogenous gamma interferon administration may halt or slow the progression of cirrhosis in patients with early progressive cirrhosis. Alternatively, endogenous gamma interferon production could be stimulated in these patients with progressive cirrhosis. One agent which may be useful for inducing endogenous gamma interferon is GE-132, an organogermanium. PMID: 3108636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
3108636&query_hl=33&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Immune System
A new inducer of immune interferon in human leukocytes--the organogermanium compound MOP-11.  Vopr Virusol. 1991 Jan-Feb;36(1):63-4.

Khusainov RM, Ignatenko MA, Gritsenko LI, Frolova IS, Babaiants AA, Kuznetsov VP, Amchenkova AM, Narovlianskii AN, Pokidysheva LN, Barteneva NS, et al.

PMID: 1650066 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
1650066&query_hl=7&itool=pubmed_docsum

  Back Up

Immune System
Restoration of impaired immunoresponse by germanium in mice.  Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1980;63(3):338-9

Mizushima Y, Shoji Y, Kaneko K.

An organogermanium was given to young and aged C3H/HeJ mice sensitized by sheep red blood cells, and plaque-forming cells (PFC) in the spleens from the animals were measured. PFC decreased markedly in the aged mice. The organogermanium at an appropriate dose significantly increased the PFC in the aged mice, whereas it did not increase PFC in the young mice. Thus, germanium is considered to restore to some extent the impaired immunoresponses in aged mice. PMID: 7419294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
7419294&query_hl=7&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Cancer, Immune System, Antiviral, Arthritis, Osteoporosis
Therapeutic effects of organic germanium.  Med Hypotheses. 1988 Jul;26(3):207-15.

Goodman S.

International Inst. of Symbiotic Studies, Brighton, Sussex, U.K.

Germanium is present in all living plant and animal matter in micro-trace quantities. Its therapeutic attributes include immuno-enhancement, oxygen enrichment, free radical scavenging, analgesia and heavy metal detoxification. Toxicological studies document Germanium's rapid absorption and elimination from the body, and its safety. Clinical trials and use in private practices for more than a decade have demonstrated Germanium's efficacy in treating a wide range of serious afflictions, including cancer, arthritis and senile osteoporosis. Germanium's anti-viral and immunological properties, including the induction of interferon, macrophages, T-suppressor cells and augmentation of natural killer cell activity, suggest its possible efficacy in treating and/or preventing AIDS. PMID: 3043151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
3043151&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Cancer, Lung, Immune System
Prevention of pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and activation of murine macrophages by a novel organic germanium compound, PCAGeS.  J Biol Response Mod. 1988 Feb;7(1):1-5.

Sato I, Nishimura T, Kakimoto N, Suzuki H, Tanaka N.

Institute of Applied Microbiology, University of Tokyo, Japan.

The pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma was strongly blocked by daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with 0.5 mg of PCAGeS/kg/day for 7 days after tumor implantation. The metastasis-preventive activity of PCAGeS was markedly reduced when mice were treated with carrageenan, a macrophage blocker. On the other hand, treatment with antiasialo GM1 antiserum did not significantly affect the percentage of inhibition of metastasis by the compound. These results suggest that macrophages rather than natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the suppression of metastasis by PCAGeS. PCAGeS induced tumoristatic and tumoricidal activities in the peritoneal macrophages of mice by oral administration. The activity of NK cells was also augmented by i.p. treatment with the compound. These results suggest that PCAGeS is a useful substance for preventing pulmonary metastasis. PMID: 3373232 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
3373232&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_DocSum

  Back Up

Antiviral, Immune System
Antiviral Activity of 3-oxygermylpropionic Acid Polymer (SK-818).  Pharmacometrics 1990;39(4):385-388.

Haruhisa Fujita and Yoshiko Seto. Division of Chemotherapy, Pharmaceutical Institute, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinanomachi, Shiinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan 

Received December 20, 1989

The antiviral effect of 3-oxygermylpropionic acid polymer (proxigermanium or SK-818) was examined in  in vitro systems with DNA and RNA viruses and in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.  A multiple oral administration of the compound at doses of 10-100 mg/kg protected mice from virus infection.   However, Proxigermanium itself  has  no direct action on virus particles or virus-infected cells in vitro. The ability of the compound to suppress infection of mice with herpes virus may be expressed through potentiation of the host’s defense functions including an interferon production  and  an  augmentation  of  natural  killer  (NK)  cell activity.  The interferon-inducing NK cell-stimulating and delayed type of hypersensitivity – augmenting activities of Proxigermanium (SK-818) have already been demonstrated in experimental animals.

  Back Up

Website Sponsored by Designed Nutritional Products © germaniumsesquioxide.org 2007