ORGANIC GERMANIUM / GERMANIUM SESQUIOXIDE — SCIENCE WEBSITE
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Analytical •AntimutagenicAntioxidant •Antiviral •Arthritis •Atherosclerosis •Bioavailability •CancerCataracts  •Cervix •DNA Repair •Fibrosis •Free Radical ScavengingHazards •Heart •History •Immune SystemKidneysInflammation •Liver •Osteoporosis •Pain Management Pharmacology •Reviews •Safety •Uterus

Antiviral
Antiviral
activity of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) in mice infected with influenza virus.  J Biol Response Mod. 1989 Apr;8(2):180-9.

Aso H, Suzuki F, Ebina T, Ishida N.

Department of Bacteriology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

The protective effect of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) in mice infected with a mouse-adapted strain of influenza virus (H2N2) was investigated. When mice were exposed to a 10 LD50 dose of influenza virus via aerosol and were treated orally with 20 or 100 mg/kg of Ge-132 daily for 6 consecutive days, a significant protective effect was demonstrated. The antiviral effect of Ge-132 was indicated by an increase of survivors, a prolongation of mean survival days, an inhibition of the development of lung consolidation, and a decrease of virus titer in lung tissues, as compared to infected control mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Natural killer (NK) cell activity in the spleens and lungs of the infected mice was also significantly augmented after the oral administration of Ge-132. In addition, NK cells stimulated with Ge-132 in vivo showed killing activity against NK-insensitive Meth-A cells infected with influenza virus. Because no virucidal or virustatic activities of Ge-132 on the virus were found in vitro, this protective effect in mice against influenza virus infection may be displayed through immunomodulating activities of this compound such as the augmentation of NK cell activity.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
2471817&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

Antiviral, Immune System
Immunological control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in an immunodeficient murine model of thermal injuries.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2005 Dec;142(3):419-25.

Katakura T, Yoshida T, Kobayashi M, Herndon DN, Suzuki F.

Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555-0435, USA.

Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a major cause of sepsis in patients who are immunosuppressed by their burns. In this study, an immunological regulation of MRSA infection was attempted in a mouse model of thermal injury. SCIDbg mice were resistant to MRSA infection, while SCIDbgMN mice (SCIDbg mice depleted of neutrophils and macrophages (Mphi)) were susceptible to the same infection. Also, thermally injured SCIDbg mice were shown to be susceptible to MRSA infection. On the other hand, the resistance of SCIDbgMN mice to the infection was completely recovered after an inoculation with Mphi from normal mice. However, anti-MRSA resistance was not shown in SCIDbgMN mice inoculated with Mphi from thermally injured mice. Mphi from MRSA-infected thermally injured mice were identified as alternatively activated Mphi, and Mphi from MRSA-infected unburned mice were characterized as classically activated Mphi. Mphi from thermally injured SCIDbg mice previously treated with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) protected SCIDbgMN mice against MRSA infection. Ge-132 has been described as an inhibitor of alternatively activated Mphi generation. These results suggest that MRSA infection in thermally injured patients is controlled immunologically through the induction of anti-MRSA effector cells and elimination of burn-associated alternatively activated Mphi, which are cells that inhibit the generation of classically activated Mphi.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
16297152&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_docsum

Immune System, Antiviral
Studies on the antiviral activity of propagermanium with immunostimulating action. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994 Mar;44(3):357-61.

Ishiwata Y, Suzuki E, Yokochi S, Otsuka T, Tasaka F, Usuda H, Mitani T.

Mie Laboratory, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Japan.

The effects of propagermanium (3-oxygermylpropionic acid polymer) on various virus-infected mice were investigated. Propagermanium did not inhibit the multiplication of various DNA or RNA viruses in vitro. Oral administration of propagermanium in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) significantly prolonged the mean survival days. The efficacy of propagermanium at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg daily was 13.4 +/- 2.3 and 14.2 +/- 2.3 mean survival days in comparison with 7.7 +/- 0.5 mean survival days at control group. In vaccinia virus-infected mice, oral doses of propagermanium ranging from 0.2 to 10 mg/kg suppressed the number of pocks on the tail which induced by the virus. Propagermanium (0.5-10 mg/kg) orally given to HSV-1-infected mice induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) against HSV-1 antigen. In addition, propagermanium (1-10 mg/kg) enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induction in mice treated with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG). In mice spleen cells cultured with Concanavalin A, 0.1 to 10 micrograms/ml of propagermanium stimulated interleukin 2 (IL-2) production. It seems likely that the antiviral activity of propagermanium was exerted via enhancement of host immune resistance against viral infection.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
8192703&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_DocSum

Immune System, Antiviral
Effects of proxigermanium on interferon production and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity in the lung of influenza virus-infected mice and in virus-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990 Aug;40(8):896-9.

Ishiwata Y, Yokochi S, Suzuki E, Michishita H, Tashita A, Asano K, Mitani T, Kurono M.

Mie Laboratory, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Japan.

Proxigermanium (SK-818) is a synthesized organic germanium compound having various biological activities. The effects of proxigermanium on interferon (IFN) production in mice infected with influenza virus and virus-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) were investigated. Proxigermanium alone did not induce IFN production in normal mice or in hPBMC without viral infection. On the other hand, proxigermanium enhanced alpha/beta IFN production in viral-infected mice and hPBMC. Since proxigermanium is known to have antiviral activity in vivo but not in vitro, it is likely that the IFN production augumenting activity of proxigermanium is involved in its antiviral activities.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
1700719&query_hl=48&itool=pubmed_DocSum

Liver, Antiviral
New management of hepatitis B virus.  Nippon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 1999 Apr 10;88(4):713-7.

Sata M, Kumashiro R.

PMID: 10341661 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
10341661&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_docsum

Cancer, Immune System, Antiviral, Arthritis, Osteoporosis
Therapeutic effects of organic germanium.  Med Hypotheses. 1988 Jul;26(3):207-15.

Goodman S.

International Inst. of Symbiotic Studies, Brighton, Sussex, U.K.

Germanium is present in all living plant and animal matter in micro-trace quantities. Its therapeutic attributes include immuno-enhancement, oxygen enrichment, free radical scavenging, analgesia and heavy metal detoxification. Toxicological studies document Germanium's rapid absorption and elimination from the body, and its safety. Clinical trials and use in private practices for more than a decade have demonstrated Germanium's efficacy in treating a wide range of serious afflictions, including cancer, arthritis and senile osteoporosis. Germanium's anti-viral and immunological properties, including the induction of interferon, macrophages, T-suppressor cells and augmentation of natural killer cell activity, suggest its possible efficacy in treating and/or preventing AIDS. PMID: 3043151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
3043151&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_DocSum

Antiviral, Immune System
Antiviral Activity of 3-oxygermylpropionic Acid Polymer (SK-818).  Pharmacometrics 1990;39(4):385-388.

Haruhisa Fujita and Yoshiko Seto. Division of Chemotherapy, Pharmaceutical Institute, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinanomachi, Shiinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan 

Received December 20, 1989

The antiviral effect of 3-oxygermylpropionic acid polymer (proxigermanium or SK-818) was examined in  in vitro systems with DNA and RNA viruses and in mice infected with herpes simplex virus type 2.  A multiple oral administration of the compound at doses of 10-100 mg/kg protected mice from virus infection.   However, Proxigermanium itself  has  no direct action on virus particles or virus-infected cells in vitro. The ability of the compound to suppress infection of mice with herpes virus may be expressed through potentiation of the host’s defense functions including an interferon production  and  an  augmentation  of  natural  killer  (NK)  cell activity.  The interferon-inducing NK cell-stimulating and delayed type of hypersensitivity – augmenting activities of Proxigermanium (SK-818) have already been demonstrated in experimental animals.

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