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Analytical — Links Summary

[Determination of GeO2 in germanium-132 by phenylfuorone] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 1999 Aug;19(4):585-6. Dong Y, Shen H.

[Respective determination of inorganic germanium and germanium-132 in foods]Guang Pu Xue
Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 1998 Feb;18(1):77-80.
Chen Q, Yang H.

Analytical product study of germanium-containing medicine by different ICP-MS applications.  
J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2004;18(1):9-16.
Krystek P, Ritsema R.

Study on the analysis of organogermanium compounds by ion chromatography Se Pu. 1997 May;15(3):240-2. Chen Q, Mou S, Hou X, Ni Z.

Determination of germanium in aloe vera by spectrophotometric method.  Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004 Nov;33(6):747-9. [Article in Chinese] Hou D, Hui R, Chen B, Guo H, Li H.

Determination of germanium in human specimens: comparative study of atomic absorption spectrometry and microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry.  J Anal Toxicol. 1999 Nov-Dec;23(7):625-31. Shinohara A, Chiba M, Inaba Y.

  


Analytical
[Determination of GeO2 in germanium-132 by phenylfuorone] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 1999 Aug;19(4):585-6.

Dong Y, Shen H.

Changzhou Sanitation and Anti-epidemic Station, 213003 Changzhou.

Inorganic (GeO2) in carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (germanium-132) was determined by phenylfuorone spectrometry. The method is convenient and has good precision and accuracy. The recovery of GeO2 is 93%-107%.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
15818963&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

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Analytical
[Respective determination of inorganic germanium and germanium-132 in foods]Guang Pu Xue
Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 1998 Feb;18(1):77-80.

Chen Q, Yang H.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Academia Sinica, 100085 Beijing.

Inorganic germanium and carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide (germanium-132) in health drinks were respectively determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). The conditions of respective determination of inorganic germanium and germanium-132 in natural foods
were preliminarily discussed.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
15810339&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

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Analytical
Analytical product study of germanium-containing medicine by different ICP-MS applications.  
J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2004;18(1):9-16.

Krystek P, Ritsema R.

Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. petra.krystek@rivm.nl

For several years organo-germanium containing medicine has been used for special treatments of e.g. cancer and AIDS. The active substances contain germanium as beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide ((GeCH2CH2COOH)203/"Ge-132"), spirogermanium, germanium-lactate-citrate or unspecified forms. For humans, germanium is not essential and in general the toxicity of the mentioned organo-germanium compounds is low. Acute and chronic toxic effects of inorganic germanium dioxide have been demonstrated. It is obvious that especially inorganic germanium has a higher potential of negative effects. Therefore, a widespread analytical product control is indispensable. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the preferred technique and different applications were developed for controlling various parameters: (i) A speciation method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with quadrupole (Q-) ICP-MS was developed for the identification of organo-germanium species in medicine. (ii) The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was applied to confirm the molecular structure and to determine the molecule concentration. (iii) The total concentration of germanium in the medicine was determined in the diluted sample by high resolution (HR-) ICP-MS. (iv) For a general overview, a multi-element screening method of 56 elements with HR-ICP-MS was developed. The semi-quantitative mode was used for quantification and elements of higher abundance are reported. (v) Investigations about matrix-based interferences on masses of isotopes, which are generally determinable without remarkable problems. Isotopes like e.g. 85Rb, 88Sr, 89y, 90Zr, 93Nb and the isotopes of Ba are strongly interfered by different Ge-based molecules and need to be analysed in a higher resolution mode than used for other common matrices.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
15487758&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

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Analytical
Study on the analysis of organogermanium compounds by ion chromatography Se Pu. 1997 May;15(3):240-2.

Chen Q, Mou S, Hou X, Ni Z.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085.

A new high performance ion exchange chromatographic method for separation and determination of three organogermanium compounds beta-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (I), beta-(alpha-methyl) carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (II) and di-(beta-carboxyethyl) germanium hydroxide (III) has been developed. A Dionex DX-300 Ion Chromatograph equipped with a Dionex PED-II pulsed electrochemical detector (conductivity mode), a Dionex AMMS-1 anion micromembrane suppressor, and a Dionex ACI advanced computer interface coupled with AI-450 chromatographic software was employed. The separation was achieved by using a Dionex IonPac AS4A-SC column as analytical column, sodium tetraborate solution as eluent, and sulfuric acid solution as regenerant. For reducing run time, a gradient program was chosen. The detection limits (S/N = 3, expressed as germanium) for the three compounds were 0.038mg/L (I), 0.035mg/L (II) and 0.025mg/L (III), respectively. The method has been applied to the analysis of two tonic oral drinks, and the average recoveries for the three compounds ranged from 95%-101%. The results obtained were in agreement with those of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=
15739368&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum

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Analytical
Determination of germanium in aloe vera by spectrophotometric method.  Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2004 Nov;33(6):747-9. [Article in Chinese]

Hou D, Hui R, Chen B, Guo H, Li H.

Department of Chemistry, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005, China.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the organic germanium in aloe vera from different localities. METHODS: The method was based on germanium forms a stable complex with phenylfluorone in the acidified solution and CTMAB as solubilization agent. The contents of the organic germanium in Aloe vera from different localities were determined by spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: The linear range of determination is 0-0.7 microg/ml. The recovery is 98.1%-99.0% and the coefficient of variation is 1.8%. PMID: 15727195 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
15727195&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum

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Analytical
Determination of germanium in human specimens: comparative study of atomic absorption spectrometry and microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry.  J Anal Toxicol. 1999 Nov-Dec;23(7):625-31.

Shinohara A, Chiba M, Inaba Y.

Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The determination methods of germanium (Ge) in biological specimens such as blood plasma, erythrocytes, urine, hair, nail, and other organs were established using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry (MIP-MS). The detection limits of Ge standard solution were 3 ng/mL with GFAAS and 0.05 ng/mL with MIP-MS. The detection limits in organ samples depended on the type of samples and sampling amounts: 3-30 ng/g by GFAAS and 0.05-0.5 ng/g by MIP-MS. The sensitivity of GFAAS was lower than that of MIP-MS; however, it was adequate for determining Ge concentrations in specimens from patients who had ingested Ge. Samples were digested by a simple wet-ashing procedure using nitric acid and perchloric acid. To avoid the interfering effects of coexisting elements and perchloric acid residue, an extraction method using organic solvent was tried. When using MIP-MS, extraction was not necessary; however, both dilution and addition of an internal standard were needed. Special attention was required for iron-rich samples because a molecular ion of 56Fe16O was observed at nm/z72 where 2Ge was monitored. The results of Ge concentrations in human samples obtained by these methods agreed well. Interfering effects of perchloric acid, which was used for digestion and which remained in samples, were observed in both methods. Hair and nail samples from people who had ingested Ge were useful for monitoring Ge in the body. Hair samples were useful for determining past exposure to Ge when the distribution patterns from the scalp to the end of the strand were analyzed. In control subjects, Ge concentrations in the listed specimens and organs were lower than 0.1 microg/g or mL, and these low levels of Ge were able to be determined by MIP-MS in combination with the extraction method. PMID: 10595851 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=
10595851&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_DocSum

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